Positive and Negative Feedback loops
The negative feedback loop brings the body closer to the set point at which the internal environment of the human body operated. For example, during the cold weather the body uses the thermoregulatory centre to try and keep the body temperature at a constant. The positive feedback loop is defined as the instant when the body moves away from the set point of the internal environment. In homeostasis the body has a target set point which it tries to maintain, with the use of the negative feedback loop the body strives to stabilize the internal environment by regulating the temperature of the body. Sometimes with the negative feedback loop the body can go below or above the set point, but has an aim to keep the internal temperature at a stabilized and regulated set point. In a positive feedback loop the body moves away from the set point, so rather than maintaining an equilibrium the positive feedback loops tend to move away from the target set point set by the body.
When mistakes occur in the feedback loops diseases like Diabetes mellitus can be formed where the body is unable to create insulin or on the other hand the body being unable to detect created insulin in the body, therefore being unable to use it. The feedback loops are used to inform the body about changes that occur internally and externally. Humans need homeostasis to keep the desired set point at a constant, and with the help of the feedback loops, the body is able to keep the internal environment of the body at the set point. For example during the cold weather the feedback loops work in the body to keep the internal temperature at a point suitable to the cells in the body, and because humans are
endothermic, the feedback loops allow the body to know when to regulate the internal temperature. Therefore humans use the negative feedback loop to maintain the constant body temperature of about 37°C. The body uses vasodilation and vasoconstriction in the negative feedback loop to keep the body at a stabilized set point.
This is a metabolic disease where individuals with high glucose levels disolved in the blood because of the lack of sufficients insulin or the inability for cells to recognise the produced insulin. Diabetes is related to blood glucose levels, because of the high amount os glucose that can be found in individuals with diabeted, therefore the set point of glucose is to highly saturated in the blood vesseles.
When the glucose of homeostasis fails a disease called diabetes is formed, these include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Insulin dependent or type 1 diabetes is a type of disease where the body produces the needed amount of insulin required, making the body suffer severe insulin deficiency. This is because the β-cells become killed off by an autoimmune reaction. Type 1 diabetes is usually an inherited disease that is passed on through generations in a family. It is also concluded that no insulin is produced by the body in the presence of type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes on the other hand is quite opposite to type 1 diabetes, in this case insulin is produced by the body, but the insulin receptors do not work in the target cells further making the insulin have no effect. The body however does not stop producing insulin and over the years
insulin builds up.
Type 1 diabetes is treated by insulin injection which can in fact cause hypoglycemic coma which is an over-dose on insulin. Type two diabetes is treated by careful balancing of
the diet. .
The positive feedback loop
The positive feedback mechanismis used to accelrate the output that is created by an already activated stimulus during hoemeostasis. The positive feedback loop is different from the negative feedback as it doesnt start a maintainance of the internal environment of the body, rather it the positive feeedback moves levels out of the normal ranges it shoudl usually be found. FRom this explanation the view provided by the positive feedback mechanism is a negative useless mechanism, but one importance of this mechanism is that it help in the bodies accumulation of blood platelets. Therefore it acts in the healing of tears and breaks in blood vesseles as the blood clots.
Biotic and abiotic factors
Biotic factors are living factors that grow eat and reproduce, abiotic factors however are non livign things, these include the temperature including heat and cool weathers.
Abiotic factors play a large role during homeostasis, as the are non living factors that are found in both the internal and external environment they work to keep the body at a constant level. When for example the temperature in the external environment changes the internal environment notices this change, and based on the information atain from the receptors(skin) the inside temperature is ajusted acordingly.
Similarly with biotic factors, bacteria in the body are able to cause homeostasis to occur as they are foreign to the body, the body tries to act against it. This is where the imune system comes into play as it fights using whiyte blood cells agains the intruding bacterial organism. As the body works to maintain a balance agaisnt both biotic and abiotic factors, the body uses both the internal and external enironemtn to maintain equilibrium.